Mouse models of cancer have consistently been used to determine the in vivo activity of new anti-cancer therapeutics prior to clinical development and testing in humans. The most common models are xenografts of human tumors and cell lines grown subcutaneously in immunodeficient mice such as athymic (nude) or severe combined immune deficient (SCID) mice. These mouse strains exhibit very high take rates for xenografts, making them ideal hosts for in vivo propagation of human tumor cells.


  • Xenograft models are commonly used to determine ideal drug dosing, treatment schedules, and routes of drug administration that maximize anti-tumor efficacy and therapeutic window.


Xenograft graph 1

Human ASPC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells were injected subcutaneously into the right flank of 8 week old female NU NU nude mice (Crl:NU-Foxn1nu).  Tumor size measurements were initiated 8 days post inoculation and monitored three times per week.  Tumor measurements were evaluated using calipers;tumor size was calculated using the following formula:  (Length x width2)/2. Data are plotted as mean tumor volume +/- standard error of the mean.


Human cancer cells are injected into 6-week old female NU NU mice.

Tumor size measurements are initiated 8 days post inoculation and monitored two times per week.

Tumor measurements are evaluated using calipers; tumor size is calculated as: MIN (L:W)2x MAX(L:W)/2.


  • Animals:  Mice or Rats 

  • Cell Line:  Client-specified strain

  • Route of Drug Administration: Intraperitoneal, intramuscular, intratumoral, intravenous, subcutaneous

  • Reference Substance & Control: Client-specified reference drug; vehicle

  • Length/Endpoint: Death or protocol-specified endpoint

  • Assays & Measurements: Tumor growth rate, tumor growth delay, tumor growth inhibition,  PK/PD analyses, molecular analyses

Proven Expertise

We have experience with a variety of mammalian species used for vaccine and drug development. Our studies range from single digit to hundreds of animals.

Our scientists, with over 15 years of GLP experience, provide all aspects of the GLP process from design to regulatory support of your IND, IDE or PMA FDA submission.